Read and annotate the two complete Freedom Writers Diary excerpts. Your annotations should focus on possible connections to The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian. The third one, which starts on 68 is missing page 67, which I just recopied, so save it for tomorrow.
Here are the notes you might have missed in class:
INTRO TO VERBS:
Verbs are one of three elements that are necessary to form a complete sentence – the other two are subj and complete thought – if these three elements are not present in a sentence, then the sentence is incomplete.
Verbs can be two types – action or linking (state of being in that what comes after the linking verb tells you about the subject).
Action verbs – subject can perform them. Ex: Mr. Chapin (SUBJ – N/PN that is the main idea/does the action) screams (v – action) at the class.
Two types of action verbs – Transitive and intransitive
Intransitive action verbs only need a subj and a verb to express a complete thought – anything that comes after it might make the sentence more interesting but, from a grammatical standpoint, is not necessary to express a complete thought.
Ex: Mr. Chapin screams at the class(prepositional phrase that is not needed). Mr. Chapin screams. EXPRESSES A COMPLETE THOUGHT – THEREFORE SCREAMS IS AN INTRANSITIVE VERB.
Ex: The students from Thornton-Donovan walk (INT) to Chicken Joes. They went (INT) home after school.
SUBJS are 9/10 times found near the beginning of a sentence – they must agree with verb in # - SING SUBJ/SING V; PL SUBJ/PL V
The other type of action verb is a transitive verb, which means that it needs a direct object to express a complete thought. A DO is a N/PN – what or whom? – that the subject acts upon.
Ex: She hit(TR) him (WHOM DID SHE HIT? HIM=DIRECT OBJECT) with a brick.
Ex: During class the teacher (SUBJ) sent (TR) the student (WHOM DID TEACHER SEND? STUDENT = DO) to the office.
Ex: The player threw his coach the ball (WHAT DID THE PLAYER THROW = BALL = DO).
Coach in the above example is the receiver of the direct object known as the indirect object
TR VERBS DO NOT NEED INDIRECT OBJS, JUST Dos to EXPRESS COMPL THOUGHTS – SENTS CAN’T HAVE IOS W/O DOS b/c how can something be received that hasn’t been given?
IO, if present, will come before the DO. EX: Mr. Chapin gave the student (TO WHOM was paper given? IO) his paper (DO – what was given).
SUBJS, Dos, and IOS are never found in prepositional phrases (collections of words that show relationships b/w ideas in a sentence – begin w/ a preposition and end w/ a N/PN – object of the preposition).
Linking verbs – connect subject to a part of the complete predicate (VERB + everything that comes after it) that either renames SUBJ (N/PN) or modifies it (adjective) – these three are called subject complements.
• LVs do NOT express action; therefore, subjects do not DO them
• The most common linking verb is a form of to be (am, is, are, was, were, will be, has been, have been, had been, or will have been).
• Ex: Mr. Chapin (SUBJ) is (LV) the English teacher (N – SUBJ COMPL) at Thornton-Donovan School. Mr. Chapin cannot IS in this case and teacher does rename him; to check, flip subject complement and modifiers with Subject and modifiers – if it makes sense, it’s a N subj complement – The English Teacher at T-D is Mr. Chapin.
• However, the following can either be action or LV depending on if the subject does it or not: feel, smell, taste, look, turn, grow, appear, sound – Ex: The teacher (SUBJ) grew (connecting angry w/teacher – no action = LV) angry (ADJ SUBJ COMPL MOD TEACHER) with the indolent students. Ex: Sally grew (TR VERB) vegetables (DO) and spices (DO) in her backyard. Ex: They look (LV) exhausted (ADJ – SUBJ COMPL) v. They look (INT) at each other.
• If subj can’t do it, verb = LV; if subject does it, it’s either TR or INT – if N/PN follows verb to express complete thought, it’s TR; if what comes after verb is not needed to express complete thought, it’s INT.
English Assignments 7-12
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