Copy the following notes (be sure to answer the bold questions within the notes):
9/19 - continuation of notes:
In Chapter 3, says to Scout, “You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view–” (30).
• The quote also indirectly characterizes Atticus as someone who is sage and has great wisdom – he’s accepting of all at a time when not many were.
• Atticus compromises with Scout – continue to go to school and they can continue to read at night so long as she doesn’t mention it to Miss Caroline.
The law compromises for the Ewells as well – it’s easier than dealing with them.
Bob Ewell can hunt out of season because his children are hungry and no one is going to deny children the right to eat. Bob Ewell is a drunkard who drinks his welfare check instead of taking care of his family. ENTIRE FAMILY IS A BLIGHT ON MAYCOMB COUNTY – 3 generations and counting.
Also, the truant officer only forces the Ewells to go to school on the first day; then, they are absent for the rest of the year and no one retrieves them.
Distinction between the poor of Maycomb and the Ewells:
• Cunninghams and Littles – ex of people who are poor but work hard at farming and have morals – principles – and stand for something.
• Their kids, Walter and Little Chuck respectively, have manners.
• Overall good people despite their ratty clothes and unkempt look.
• Ewells, on the other hand, are dregs of society – they are indolent (lazy), uncouth people.
• Values emanate from our families. Mr. Ewell is an awful ex. for his children – children are a rep of him.
9/20 - New page of notes - Empathy in relation to the Legend of Boo Radley:
Explain the meaning of the following quote: “‘But sometimes the Bible in the hand of one man is worse than a whiskey bottle in the hand of – oh, of your father.”
• Miss Maudie’s revealing to Scout some true info about Arthur “Boo” Radley furthers the theme of empathy.
• She’s allowing Scout to see that Arthur is an actual person, not a monster, who has had a tough life – attributes his strident upbringing and what neither she nor Scout knows that goes on inside the house (poor treatment at the hands of his father) for why he stays in.
• Mr. Radley was a "foot-washing Baptist" – strict reader of the Bible – takes it literally – these people study the Bible and live very austere and basic lives, for they believe that pleasure of any kind is unwholesome and sinful.
• Believe very strongly that most actions lead to hell
• Mr. Nathan Radley is an extension of the father.
Review of theme: The overarching message an author relays to his/her audience throughout/by the end of a text.
• Themes are not topical; rel. to various pieces of lit/real life; they identify trends within literature; they do not give advice - morals do.
• Examples of how to phrase a theme - The Cruelty of human nature; Jealousy as a condition of human nature; the value of friendship
• Ref. back to Atticus, in Chapter 3, says to Scout, “You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view–” (30).
• This and many other examples we will see throughout the text reinforce the following theme from 'To Kill a Mockingbird': The need to be empathetic.
What is empathy?
Why is it important that we’re empathetic?
Can you think of any other examples where empathy is suggested/employed?
Identify two more themes from 'To Kill a Mockingbird'.
Follow up on Voice/Diction notes from 9/14-15:
Chapter 8 shows the childish nature of both Scout and Jem - VOICE.
• Chapter begins with Scout’s childish interp of Mr. Avery’s words.
• Childish honesty – Scout uses N-word to describe snowman 66
• Snowman looks like Mr. Avery – Atticus talks like a lawyer (libel) in explaining why they have to change its appearance.
• Atticus uses the word Morphodite (hermaphrodite) to describe the snowman – significant when Scout recapitulates it to Ms. Maudie who laughs at the end of the chapter
• Scout comes home with a blanket after being outside all night with the fire
• Doesn’t know where it came from – Atticus knows. Arthur Radley wrapped her in it.
• Atticus wants to return it – Jem goes into a frenzy telling him about the knothole and the gifts and Nathan Radley filling it in with cement – he sees Arthur now not as a monster – doesn’t want Atticus to return him because he fears the repercussions Arthur might suffer because of it (72).
• Atticus agrees not to – SCOUT THINKS HE WASN’T LISTENING TO JEM (CHILDISH); actually, Atticus completely understands.
• Shows that Jem is compassionate like Atticus and empathetic as well.
The above difference in vantage points between children and adults sets up the following:
Atticus has two meetings in Chapter 15:
• Atticus has everything to lose and nothing to gain in representing TR – Mr. Link Deas, part of the group of merchants and farmers who come to Atticus’s house SAT night with Sheriff Heck Tate.
• They’re concerned about the Cunningham’s – Old Sarem gang – making a problem the night before the trial – they will try and harm TR
• For Atticus, it’s not about gains and losses – none of that matters if Atticus compromises his principles – He will fail to be himself if he does – he won’t respect himself or deserve respect.
• Violating your own PRINCIPLES means you have no principles.
• Atticus thinks they will respect Sunday – church/day of rest
• Follow up conversation Sunday at church leads to Atticus leaving Sunday night after dinner – kids find it peculiar – follow him to the jail – sitting watch.
• Four cars pull up – Scout thinks it’s going to be exciting – she wants to be with Atticus – completely misinterprets the situation and thinks it’s a friendly one – it’s not.
• Scout realizes they’re all strangers, not friendly, and drunk.
• Atticus fears for his children’s safety
• Wants them to go home so they don’t see what could possibly happen to Tom and/or him.
• JEM refuses over and over – transitions from boy to man in standing with Atticus and recognizing the danger the unruly mob poses to him.
• Distinction b/w children and adults: Children are the embodiment of innocence – Scout’s making conversation with Mr. Cunningham first about her classmate Walter then about Mr. Cunningham’s “entailment” that Atticus helped him with – Scout’s childish naivety in not understanding the situation disarms Walter and the rest of the drunken mob.
• HERD MENTALITY – FOLLOW THE LEADER
• They realize they all have families to take care of and killing TR and/or harming Atticus could poss affect them.
• More so, Atticus is a father just as they are – harming him would harm his children. WALTER CUNNINGHAM PRACTICES EMPATHY AND DISBANDS THE GANG
How do these instances show that Atticus has and stands by principles?
Does Alexandra have the same principles? Why or why not?
English Assignments 7-12
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